COMMON CORE (why should we find another solution)
Charles Frederick Tolbert Ed.D.
Charles Frederick Tolbert EdD
For Senator Florida 2016
Citizens for a Better America
Any system which incorporates students testing and teachers’ evaluation misses the mark. Students learning is based on self-motivation which starts at home not at the school. Teachers can only teach a motivated student who wants to learn. While the writer was writing his dissertation on why do graduate students graduate it was determine that the soul factor was self-motivation. This can only be taught through parental involvement. The first problem is that because homes are no longer defined as a mother, father and children, but due to the increase of single parent families, children are not being given a reason to learn. Since the writer comes from a dysfunctional family where a sister committed suicide, father was never home and a mother who had to raise 4 children, he is aware of the problems that face this generation.
Common Core is a wonderful name, but its definition and implementation misses the mark. If you set a standard based on average grades, the top learners will be under educated, the below average will not be taught and will drop out of school. The cost of education must be reduced by initiating a hybrid school system, e-books and adaptation of parent, student and teachers, then more student will be motivated to learn. The investors should fund computers for every student, and printers for those who need to print their books for their particular learning style.
There are three major factors influencing world power. They are military readiness, productivity and creativeness. These three are based on the educational standard, and the ability of this generation to influence the visions of our youth today. No one factor can lead America back into the respect it had in the past, but with a vision that tri-productivity of the three can be a process for success. While attending Nova South East University, the writer wrote a concept paper which outlined a Hybrid-School system; whereas the school, parent and internet became the tools for the students to learn.
One of the misconceptions of learning is that a student can be tested by a standard that is equated to a state national standard. This misconception goes against the principles that we learn with sight, hearing and feeling, (tactile, visual and cognitive). The cognitive make up and wiring of the brain is not equal in all individuals and because of this learning through memorization and being tested based solely on our ability to regurgitate answers will not facilitate creativeness, which is one of the three major ingredients needed to bring America back into being a leader not a follower.
Our past has already shown that when the constitution is breached as it was due to the “No child left behind” in which states were provided funding if they implemented Federal Educational Standards. The constitution states that anything not covered by the constitution belongs to the state and since education is not included the state as a federalism must enact its own standards.
It is certain that if one state can be successful in establishing a means of instructing our K-12 and reduce the 50% drop out rate thereby, increasing college enrollment and establishing jobs these states would become productive manufactures of a product through creativeness rather than service and health care.
K-12 will need to focus on: on the job training; teaching, reading, writing and arithmetic, but doing so by understanding that each student is an individual and that the student is wired to learn at his or her own pace and method. The writer failed the 1st and 2nd grade and was a high school drop out and did not get his Doctoral degree in Educational Leadership until he was in his late 60’s. He becomes an ideal example how the system was able not through testing, but through individuals self-motivation and desire to learn, enabled him to graduate.
Education cannot be set by a standards top down, but must be based on bottom up. No business can generate new products or concepts from the top, but in fact these ideas are given to them by the people working for them. When we stifle creativeness we in fact become companies of the past, as China and other countries are currently using a Hybrid school system. A path to a child’s success can only be measured by the city, state and Americans own productivity.
Follow the money and you will know the purpose behind a political agenda. In this case, investors are providing the money and this author believes they have good intention even though mis-directed. To underscore this statement the writer asked himself, “Is it about productiveness or an increase consumption on a global market?” It would seem that these investors would be better served to support on the job training and investing in America becoming a producer of goods rather than a service economy.
If we are to invest in an educational program it must be tested to ensure its reliability. Teaching using the student’s ability to learn can only be graded by that individual’s productivity and the student’s implementation of what he or she has learned. If learning and leading is by example, then the writer is that example as he is dyslexia and has Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In the past 10 years the writer was self-motivated to get 2 master degrees and a doctoral degree. The writer had to learn how he was wired to learn.
Students who work in groups learn from each other and sharing information with the other helped the writer to better understand his on skills and limitation. In retrospect the hybrid school system was used to facilitate learning. Assignments online, friends and families and sharing in class room, home studying is not enough nor is class room strictly online, but equal incorporation of the three will enable the student to utilize his or her own learning skills.
A hybrid school system will be defined as schools that use class room, online sources, and home schooling to teach the accredited curriculum. This replication will happen regardless of the main school’s location, and this initiative reflects the directions of education systems in the future. The changing global education system requires that new innovative instructions be researched for all grade levels in order for parochial schools to compete with the traditional public school system. The introduction of technology Web-based teachings and its integration into nonprofit organizations to include physical places of worship have enabled outreach programs to be expanded outside of the assemblies
The major concerns are location of the Information Technology Department (ITD); use of resource (money, time, and personnel) to support technology; and the educating of men, women, and children using multimedia and technology with and availability of access to teachers for the hybrid school system. There is a belief that technology will cause changes in the way secular schools teach, and religious-based schools might want to consider the cause and effect of money being spent to maintain and operate a school building. Ginsburg (1999) stated, “We all acknowledge that the information age has had a profound impact on the world around us; thus it is not unreasonable to assume that the information age should also affect the form and function of adult education” (p. 45).
According to Boffetti (n.d.), Parents want more than just good grades, too; they think moral instruction is important. Many parents send their children to private religious schools at their own expense or educate their children at home. In fact, almost all parents believe that their children need such instruction. More than 90 percent of parents believe that schools ought to try to instill the virtues of honesty and moral courage, apply the Golden Rule, teach children to accept people with different ethnic and religious backgrounds, and promote democracy. And 68 percent of parents want schools to teach sexual abstinence. (p. 1)
Educational evaluation is clearly decision oriented. It is intended to lead to better policies and practices in education (Wolf, 1990). According to Herod (2000), “discussions are commonly framed against the related notions of formative and summative purposes, terms first used by Scriven in 1967” (p. 23). Herod also wrote, “In determining the value of curriculum plan, educators must eventually ask if the results which are expected, are worth what the cost of delivering them is likely to be” (p. 23). Herod further stated, “Front-end evaluation would allow adult literacy practitioners to clarify, make decisions, and act on the issues rather than fall victim to the steamroller that is technology” (p. 23). To be a teacher, leader or anyone that wants to succeed we must learn and accept that risk-taking is permissible. According to Barth on page 13, “As students, teachers and leaders we can assume leadership roles.” This writer has taught that the sales person is not always making the sale sometimes it is the buyer. This also holds true in teaching and leading. Not all who are placed in the position of a teacher or leader are in fact the teacher or leader they only hold the title. Many students, staff and outside organizations may be actually teaching and leading the organization or school.
Effective principals (leaders) use multiple sources of data as diagnostic tools to assess, identify and apply instructional improvements. Selecting this standard as one of the first standards ties the content together, so for this reason this writer states it first. That statement or standard may seem simple to someone who has lead but what if the principal/leader has never been placed in a leadership role? Who is responsible for the fueling of the trucks (teaching the students)? Providing the required maps and direction (vision, mission, goals, books and curriculum)? To answer these questions we can turn to the Professional Learning Community (PLC) because each organization/school should be providing what is needed for the local community (tenets – principle doctrines held by a group of professionals) first before the fulfillment of State and Government requirements are fulfilled. According to Handzic & Scifleet (2002), “New-age workers are expected to be skilled at creating, acquiring and transferring knowledge and modifying their behavior accordingly (Garvin 1998).” In their writing they state, “there are five skill-sets of teachers seem to be associated with effective interactive learning by students:
• Using and Developing Professional Knowledge and Values;
• Communicating, Interacting, and Working with Students and Others;
• Planning and Managing the Teaching and Learning Process;
• Monitoring and Assessing Student Progress and Learning Outcomes; and
• Reflecting, Evaluating and Planning for Continuous Improvement.”
These five skills sets are also applicable to leaders/principals.
One of the factors that new leaders may want to prepare themselves for is the next generation of schools. Townsend (1997) wrote in the discussion paper that knowing where you were, where you are and where you are going is the key to being prepared for the future. Townsend writes, “I strongly believed that local communities were the strengths of schools and so should be considered and involved when we made decisions about education of their children. Thus the move toward the system of self-managing schools was something that I agreed with.” From this writer’s understanding, our local schools and PLC’s are not in control but are being mandated to operate and teach according to a centralized system/authority versus the decentralization that Townsend discusses. Under Townsend’s framework, the leader/principal would answer first to the community and then teach the other subjects that would insure that the student could read write and understand math. For example, our minister would want our students to understand the Bible so we would make the Bible the center of our teaching. The community would want their children to understand ethical and moral issues and to reduce the number of their children being incarcerated. This then would be the first responsibility of the leader and the PLC. In teaching moral and ethics the teachers would instruct the students how the Bible relates to their responsibility as being responsible adults.
The Bible is full of reading; writing and math problems which could be taught as the student’s learn to rethink the issues of moral standards. It is, unreasonable to assume that students will not take drugs, get into fights and have babies if they were not first taught ethics and their moral responsibility.
Barth gives an example of how decentralization works within a school. He writes about the budget problems he had and how he allocated $500.00 to each teacher. These teachers then became responsible for the material required to teach their students. The PLC was established within the school by the teacher’s interaction, exchange of ideas and material in order for them to have the supplies necessary to meet their requirements. If then schools were given a budget and the PLC of a school interacted with a PLC of other schools, it is possible that this applied principle would not just be by chance but could have an impact on the all communities. Valuable resources could be conserved and reallocated as needed to other communities. Teachers in all communities would be able to share and exchange ideas and material. The winners would be all communities and the children.
In Elmore, R. Guiding teachers in putting professional Development into practice & and ensuring opportunities to learn, he infers, see what I am doing and follow my good example; “This means that your role as a leader should distribute expertise and competence among people and to provide opportunities for other people to see you doing the learning that you expect them to do.” Leaders are followed and copied because what they practice seems to work and because they also practice what they preach. He makes another statement “you can change people’s values and change the impact of those values on student learning by changing the way people talk.” Although he does not come out and say it, he made this writer think that you must change the subconscious if you are to change the conscience. After reading this writer wrote; Changing the way the leader, teacher, and student or community thinks opens up the mind to being able to learn new ideas which in turn creates new actions and responses.
There are six standards provided by the National Association of Elementary School Principals. Each in some way have been presented in a different context in the previous writing and only for summarization purposes, will this writer give them in numerical order.
• Standard One: Balance management and Leadership Roles.
• Standard Two: Set High Expectations and Standards.
• Standard Three: Demand Content and Instructions that ensures student Achievement.
• Standard Four: Create a Culture of Adult Learning.
• Standard Five: Use Multiple Sources of data as Diagnostic tools.
• Stand Six: Actively Engage the community.
In the writing of this paper each were covered so that the reader can see how each standard does interact with the community and that the leader’s responsibility is to ensure that this interaction takes place with in the budget allocated to the organization that the leader is responsible for. In the reference by Bottoms, G and O’Neill, K. (2001), Preparing a New breed of school Principals: It’s time for Action they write “we have an opportunity to identify and prepare a diverse group of school leaders who can change curriculum and instructions and build higher performing schools.” In doing this the PLC must not be limited to a small group of individuals based on where they were born and who they were born to. They further write, “Leaders who have realized significant gains in student’s achievement made college-preparatory/honor classes the standard for all students. They are committed to providing schools where all students succeed and where all students have access to high-level content.” They key words, “They are committed to providing schools,” means they did not just look at their own responsibility to one PLC but viewed all children regardless of their race, creed, color or religion as being eligible for college. As we read in Barth, the teacher thought outside the box (their own class room) and interacted with other teachers (PLC’s) to manage their own budget.
This creates a new way of thinking. Lashway, L. (2002) Rethinking the Principalship writes, “that the principal’s role is increasingly being defined in terms of instructional leadership.” They focused on six distinct forms of leadership:
1. Instructional leadership has influenced teachers’ work in a way that will improve student’s achievement.
2. Transformational leadership seeks to increase the commitments and capacities of school staff.
3. Moral leadership is rooted in the values and ethics of the leader, who influences others by appealing to the notions of right and wrong.
4. Participation leadership is focused on decision-making processes that seek to involve other members of the school community, such as site-based management.
5. Managerial leadership focuses on functions, task, and behaviors of leaders, with an emphasis on efficiency and effectiveness.
6. Contingent leadership focuses on the ways school leaders respond to specific sets of circumstances, adapting their behavior to fit situation.
As we read these six deferent forms of leadership we should have a better understanding of the importance of the statement that a teacher must become the student and the student become the teacher because in all cases the leader is both the student and the leader. Schools no longer have bonders as we move into the multimedia of the new age of schools houses. Cairncross, F. (2001). The Death of Distances How the Communications Revolution is Changing Our Lives writes that schools cannot be isolated but should be able to exchange information and new ways to instruct and lead. Because there is no longer a distance between libraries and schools, all information is accessible to all staff and students.
DuFour, R. and Ealker, R. (1998) in their book Professional Learning Communities at Work Best Practices for Enhancing Student Achievement is an important tool for instructing leaders to understand what a PLC is and how to use a PLC to improve the allocations of resources. As is the writing of Hipp, K. K and Huffmam, J. B. (2003) Reculturing Schools as Professional Learning Communities. (PLC)
Principals should know and be able to lead, teach, manage and organize any facility regardless of its location or the ethnicity of the community. This statement may appear to be too strong for some managers to accept but what if it was written; a leader should be able to lead, manage and organize any facility regardless of its location or the ethnicity of the community and regardless of the product or service provided by the company. If then all leaders are able to do the above we can state that the Standards for what Principals should know and be able to do are the same as what we would expect from any CEO, President, Vice-President or other positions which require a leader to direct the activities of an organization. There are classes which teach professionals to lead and yet each organization does not teach leadership as to their particular product line. What is the product that a principal is producing? The product is students who can survey/survive regardless of the economy. As this writer reads from Ferrandino, V. Leading Learning Communities: Standard for what Principals should Know and be able to do, Barth, R. Balancing Leadership and management roles: Lessons from an online discussion of Principals, Lashway, L. (2002) Rethinking the Principalship, Elmore, R. Guiding teachers in putting professional Development into practice & and ensuring opportunities to learn, Bottoms, G and O’Neill, K. (2001). Preparing a New breed of school Principals: It’s time for Action. DuFour, R. and Ealker, R. (1998). Professional Learning Communities at Work Best Practices for Enhancing Student Achievement, Handzic & Scifleet (2002) “Impact of new economy on is education: A case of UNSW” Dale, N. (1994) Values Education in America Secondary Schools and several more the writer notices one theme; the key words are interchangeable in all professional settings and that the writer of this paper utilized all of these principles and taught them in the military for over twenty years.
In each reference the main purpose or teaching point was to better equip the leader with principles or standards that can be called upon when there is a need for the leader to change hats. Visualize the leader with a hat rack, each hat having a different title. There is the manager’s hat; when worn by the leader the leader is required to manage the resources. Resources are not just material goods but also the staff, personnel and students as well as the parents and the community. There is the teacher’s hat which requires the leader to establish training and activities that move the Professional Learning Community (PLC) forward. There is the director’s hat; not to be confused with one of the other hats because the director’s hat is like the hat movie directors would wear. The director is responsible for the making of a movie. Now that we can visualize the hat rack we should be able to see how simple it is to lead. All the leader has to do is run to the hat rack, select the right hat and solve the problem.
But what if the leader does not know which hat to get, nor has never delegated authority or the leader was promoted from the line without formal training? These are the questions which this writer will address as the paper progresses. Standards of what to do and which hat to wear, when taught to the leader, allows the leader to at the least start being a leader. In a war the enemy will try to figure out what your move will be and then counter move against you. In a school, organization or business the leader should be aware of their surroundings and have plans to lead when situations change. Leadership is by experience and taking risk. According to Barth, “Risk-taking in schools is so important to learning, and yet it seems to me that all too many of us are playing not to lose.” Playing not to lose is playing it safe, not taking unnecessary changes, always mindful that keeping the job is more important then moving the organization forward. Staying politically correct is the main focus of a leader who plays it safe. Have you ever worked for someone who told you, your job is to make sure I don’t lose mine?
To be a teacher, leader or anyone that wants to succeed we must learn and accept that risk-taking is permissible. According to Barth on page 13, “As students, teachers and leaders we can assume leadership roles.” This writer has taught that the sales person is not always making the sale sometimes it is the buyer. This also holds true in teaching and leading. Not all who are placed in the position of a teacher or leader are in fact the teacher or leader they only hold the title. Many students, staff and outside organizations may be actually teaching and leading the organization or school.
Assessment philosophies and policies have undergone significant changes over the past several years. On the one hand, our awareness of multiple intelligences, learning styles, and brain research shows that we need to assess students through multiple measures that will reflect a variety of learners. As a result, we hear more about such models as alternative assessments, performance-based assessments, student portfolios, and student self-assessments. On the other hand, the standards movement, which strives to increase the achievement levels of all students, emphasizes statewide standardized tests, measurable and data-driven results, value-added assessments, and school and teacher accountability. But wherever your school or district places its assessment focus, we know that students need various ways to demonstrate their learning.
The primary focus of assessment is to promote learning, not to measure and report it. Teachers must use content standards as the basis for their curriculum, assessment, and instructional decision making. The school should have a philosophy and a system of grading that ensure consistency among teachers. Faculty must develop an assessment system that tells them whether their work produces changes in student achievement. They can meet to discuss and analyze assessment data on a regular basis. Faculty should analyze assessment results to compare achievement levels among various student populations. Students are given multiple assessments, including portfolio tasks, writing projects, and collaborative assessments. Students and parents receive anchor products and scoring guidelines as a frame of reference for assessing performance, and students can explain how their work relates to targeted standards.
Effective Instructional Practices
New understandings about learning that have emerged from brain research, along with continued refinements in curriculum development and assessment of student performance, are helping educators to redefine effective instructional practices. Today’s successful teachers view themselves as facilitators of learning and invite their students to be active and responsible partners in the learning process. These teachers design learning activities to focus student learning on enduring understandings, key principles, concepts, and skills. They recognize and plan for the diverse academic needs, interests, and learning profiles of their students. Their goal is to challenge and help every student to grow, regardless of where each student begins. To accomplish this, they continuously monitor students’ progress and modify activities in response to their varied needs; use a variety of instructional strategies and assessment techniques; and engage students in the process of setting challenging academic goals, assessing their own work, and reflecting on their own progress.
Effective Curriculum Development
Successful schools have found that involving all staff and community members in the process of identifying what students should know and be able to do by the time they graduate is time well spent in developing local curriculum. Curriculum development is a team planning and examination process, using quality control measures such as standards, to ensure that you get it right. Schools show they value their teachers’ time and effort in planning curriculum by compensating them with common planning time, professional development, and stipends, and by making curriculum planning a part of the performance evaluation system.
In some schools, teachers don’t know what’s being taught in their colleagues’ classrooms. Curriculum mapping is a process that brings staff together to map the content they teach and begin the conversation about what should be in the curriculum. Mapping essential understandings and core performance tasks across the K-12 curriculum ensures a curriculum designed for depth rather than breadth, where the textbook is a resource for teachers and the textbook adoption cycle is not the extent of the school system’s curriculum development. The maps can be used to identify repetitions, gaps, and places where integration across disciplines can reduce the fragmentation commonly found in unexamined curriculum work
Effective Instructional Leadership
Schools and districts that are successful in attaining high academic achievement for all students have developed a culture that focuses on instructional leadership for administrators and teachers. Distribution of leadership and management responsibilities among the staff is the norm, allowing the principal, assistant principal, and teacher leaders to keep instruction at the forefront. Teachers and administrators work together to ensure that teacher performance appraisal is differentiated, grounded in teaching standards, aligned with multiple measures of student learning, and linked to professional development planning. Performance appraisal evidence in these schools and districts includes action research findings, self-assessment, peer assessment and feedback, and student and parent feedback. The staff welcomes the feedback received and uses it to improve professional practice. Teachers are supported in honing their skills through peer coaching, and beginning teachers and their more experienced mentors value a comprehensive mentoring program.
Instructional leaders ensure that the school improvement plan is linked to student learning results, related instructional needs, measurable goals, and the resulting professional development plan. Professional development is an integral part of the school culture and climate. This is evidenced by the use of teacher study groups and action research results to inform instructional practice for improved student learning. In these schools, when teachers are not scheduled with students, time is devoted to reviewing student work, analyzing assessment results, and other forms of collaborative planning and reflection.
Understanding the Learning Process
Educators can successfully prepare students for their adult years by understanding and honoring the dynamics of learning. Educators must recognize that, for students, schooling must be a time of curiosity, exploration, and inquiry. If they are to grow intellectually, students must be able to express their points of view, reflect on their conceptions, and then have those conceptions challenged. They may then form new understandings. And if students are to engage in such intellectually rigorous activities, educators must understand that they are collaborators in the learning process, guiding their students and giving them opportunities to make decisions in the classroom.
In schools where students realize deep understandings, teachers are familiar with theories of learning, such as the theory of multiple intelligences, learning styles, and constructivism. What’s more, in these settings teachers help students think about how they think. Students learn to identify how they learn best, and they understand that there are many ways of being “smart.” In these settings, students also have choices in how they express their learning and are encouraged to demonstrate what they know in different ways.
Designing a brain-friendly environment is a top priority for teachers in schools where true learning occurs. Teachers understand how the brain processes, stores, and retrieves information and consequently create learning environments that honor those natural functions. For example, a learning setting attuned to what we know about the brain is a safe, non-threatening place where all students feel encouraged to participate in the learning process. Teachers incorporate laughter and purposeful movement in the classroom, and they provide opportunities for students to “teach” or explain what they have just learned—in their own words–to a partner or the class.
The before mention writing was to present why Common Core is in violation of the 10th amendment and in the appendix the supreme court’s rulings on the right of the parent to be part of their children’s education.
Unfortunately, many parents resume that they have no right to teach, education or establish moral standards. This believe that the school, and government is to protect, educate and establish standards has circumvented the parents’ rights.
The in flex of money from the Federal Government to the states has circumvent the states own rights given to them as a federalism and protection written into the constitution.
If Florida is to lead, they need to start by making education its first priority. Education has to teach skills and promote creativeness, Common Core will do none of this. Common Core will however, cause great teachers to fail in their assignment of promoting creativeness and new ideas which has made America great.
In conclusion at what cost and how long will it take to establish Florida or for that matter to address a new school system. A hybrid school system study would cost less than a $1,000,000, it would take one year to develop the curriculum and establish a system that can be duplicated and mirrored across America. This model can be implemented in 3rd world countries. Instead of Florida’s being ranked 36 out of 50 States and the USA being 18 out 36 industrial counties in as little as 10 years we can be the leader by example.
We can influence world power: by military readiness, productiveness and creativeness though education and a new information system. Ask yourselves, should America be a leader or as Common Core would want us to be a follower.
John the beloved stated, “But the anointing that you received from him abides in you, and you have no need that anyone should teach you. But as his anointing teaches you about everything, and is true, and is no lie—just as it has taught you, abide in him” (1 John 2:27, New American Standard Bible).
American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Barth, R. Balancing Leadership and management roles: Lessons from an online discussion of Principals. Retrieved July 21, 2005 http://secure.eionline.net/nsu/index.cfm
Bottoms, G and O’Neill, K. (2001). Preparing a New breed of school Principals: It’s time for
Action. Southern Regional Education Board. Retrieved on July 021, 2005. Eric ED
031594 Boffetti, J. (n.d.). All schools are public schools: A case for state aid to private
education and home schooling parents. Retrieved April 25, 2006, from http://www
Cairncross, F. (2001). The Death of Distances How the Communications Revolution is Changing Our Lives. Boston, MA. Harvard Business School Press.
Corbin, J. M., & Straus, A L. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures
for developing ground theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design, qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods
approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Dale, N. (1994) Values Education in America Secondary Schools. Kutztown, PA. Kutztown
University Education Conferences Retrieved June 5, 2005 ERIC ED 381423. Denzin, N.
K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2005). The sage handbook of qualitative research (3rd ed.).
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
DuFour, R. and Ealker, R. (1998). Professional Learning Communities at Work Best Practices for Enhancing Student Achievement. Bloomington, In. National Educational Services.
Education Policy Studies (2002). Mentoring and Supporting New Teachers. NGA Center best Practice: Issue Brief, Education Poicy Studies Division January 9, 2002. ED 467748 Retrieved ERIC on July 26, 2005 http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=active+participation+in+teaching+subject&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=kw&_pageLabel=RecordDetails&objectId=0900000b80176746
Elmore, R. Guiding teachers in putting professional Development into practice & and ensuring
Fenton, F. (1996). The Holy Bible in modern English. Merrimac, MA: Destiny.
Fenton, F. (1996). The Holy Bible in modern English. Merrimac, MA: Destiny. Fitzpatrick, J. L., Sanders, J. R., & Worthen, B. R. (2004). Program evaluation alternative approaches and practical guidelines (3rd ed.). Boston: Pearson Education. Ferrandino, V. Leading Learning Communities: Standard for what Principals should Know and be able to do. Alexandria, VA. National Association of Elementary School Principals.
Gall, M. D., Gall, J. P., & Borg, W. R. (2003). Educational research and introduction (7th ed.).
Boston: Pearson Education.
Ginsburg, L. (1999). Integrating technology into adult learning. Retrieved June 15, 2005, from
Handzic & Scifleet (2002) “Impact of new economy on is education: A case of UNSW” Retrieved on July 09, 2005 Eric ED 481734
Herod, L. (2000). Integrating technology into Canadian adult literacy programs: Curriculum
evaluation consideration. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Toronto, Ontario
Institute of Studies in Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED457352)
Hipp & Huffman (2002). Documenting and examining practices in creating learning communities: Exemplars and Non-Exemplars. ED 468685 Retrieved ERIC on July 26, 2005. http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=Shared+values+and+visions+for+new+teachers&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=kw&_pageLabel=RecordDetails&objectId=0900000b801775f3
Hipp, K. K and Huffmam, J. B. ( 2003). Reculturing Schools as Professional Learning communities. Lanham, MD. Scarecrow Education
Kvale, S. (1996). Interviews. An introduction to qualitative research interviewing. Thousand
Oaks, CA: Sage.
Lashway, L.(2002) Rethinking the Principalship. National association of Elementary school
principals Volume 18, Number 3 Spring 2002. Retrieved on July 021, 2005. Eric ED
031544. Mills, D. P., Cervero, R. M., Langone, C. A., & Wilson, A. L. (1995). The
impact of interests, power relationship, and organizational structure on program planning
practices: A case study. Adult Education Quarterly, 46(1), 1-16.
Morrissey, M. (2000) Professional Learning Communities: An Ongoing Exploration. Austin,
TX. Southwest Educational Laboratory Seale, C. (2002). Quality issues in qualitative
inquiry. Qualitative Social Work, 1(1), 97-110.
Taylor, E. W., Beck, J., & Ainsworth, E. (2001). Publishing qualitative adult education research:
A peer review perspective. Studies in the Education of Adults, 33, 163-179.
opportunities to learn Retrieved July 21, 2005. http://secure.eionline.net/nsu/index.cfm
Townsend (1997) “The next generation of schools: Getting there from where we are.” Retrieved on July 09, 2005 Eric ED 417235
Wolf, R. (1990). The nature of educational evaluation. Toronto, Canada: Pergamon
In the early 1920s, the United States Supreme Court first reviewed the rights, liberties and obligations of parents to direct the upbringing of their children. Two important decisions, Meyer v. Nebraska and Pierce v. Society of Sisters, established a legacy which was followed by a series of decisions holding that parenting is a fundamental constitutional right, and among “the basic civil rights of man.”
Choices about marriage, family life, and the upbringing of children are among those rights the Court has ranked as “of basic importance in our society,” and as sheltered by the 14th Amendment against the State’s unwarranted usurpation, disregard, or disrespect.
M. L. B. v. S. L. J.
519 US 102, 117 S. Ct. 555 (1996)
Choices about marriage, family life, and the upbringing of children are among associational rights this Court has ranked as “of basic importance in our society,” rights sheltered by the 14th Amendment against the State’s unwarranted usurpation, disregard, or disrespect. This case, involving the State’s authority to sever permanently a parent-child bond, demanded the close consideration the Court has long required when a family association so undeniably important was at stake.
Santosky v Kramer
455 US 745 (1982)
The fundamental liberty interest of natural parents in the care, custody, and management of their child is protected by the 14th Amendment, and does not evaporate simply because they have not been model parents or have lost temporary custody of their child to the State. A parental rights termination proceeding interferes with that fundamental liberty interest. When the State moves to destroy weakened familial bonds, it must provide the parents with fundamentally fair procedures.
Lassiter v Department of Social Services
452 US 18 (1981)
The Court’s decisions have by now made plain that a parent’s desire for and right to “the companionship, care, custody, and management of his or her children” is an important interest that “undeniably warrants deference and, absent a powerful countervailing interest, protection.” A parent’s interest in the accuracy and justice of the decision to terminate his or her parental status is, therefore, a commanding one.
Quilloin v Walcott
434 US 246 (1978)
We have little doubt that the Due Process Clause would be offended “if a State were to attempt to force the breakup of a natural family, over the objections of the parents and their children, without some showing of unfitness and for the sole reason that to do so was thought to be in the children’s best interest.” Whatever might be required in other situations, we cannot say that the State was required in this situation to find anything more than that the adoption, and denial of legitimation, were in the “best interests of the child.”
Smith v Organization of Foster Care Families
431 US 816 (1977)
In this action, individual foster parents and a foster parents organization, sought declaratory and injunctive relief against New York State and New York City officials, alleging that the statutory and regulatory procedures for removal of foster children from foster homes violated the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses of the 14th Amendment. The ruling contains an analysis of the rights of natural parents as balanced against the rights of foster parents, as well as a comprehensive discussion of foster care conditions.
Moore v East Cleveland
431 US 494 (1977)
The Court has long recognized that freedom of personal choice in matters of marriage and family life is one of the liberties protected by the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. A host of cases, tracing their lineage to Meyer v. Nebraska and Pierce v. Society of Sisters have consistently acknowledged a “private realm of family life which the state cannot enter.” When the government intrudes on choices concerning family living arrangements, the Court must examine carefully the importance of the governmental interests advanced.
Cleveland Board of Education v La Fleur
414 US 632 (1974)
The Court has long recognized that freedom of personal choice in matters of marriage and family life is one of the liberties protected by the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. There is a right “to be free from unwarranted governmental intrusion into matters so fundamentally affecting a person as the decision whether to bear or beget a child.”
Stanley v Illinois
405 US 645 (1972)
The private interest here, that of a man in the children he has sired and raised, undeniably warrants deference and protection. The integrity of the family unit has found protection in the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment, the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment, and the 9th Amendment.
Wisconsin v Yoder
406 US 205 (1972)
In this case involving the rights of Amish parents to provide for private schooling of their children, the Court held: “The history and culture of Western civilization reflect a strong tradition of parental concern for the nurture and upbringing of their children. This primary role of the parents in the upbringing of their children is now established beyond debate as an enduring American tradition.”
Loving v Virginia
388 US 1 (1967)
In this case involving interracial marriage, the Court reaffirmed the principles set forth in Pierce and Meyers, finding that marriage is one of the basic civil rights of man, fundamental to our very existence and survival. “The Fourteenth Amendment requires that the freedom of choice to marry not be restricted by invidious racial discriminations. Under our Constitution, the freedom to marry, or not marry, a person of another race resides with the individual and cannot be infringed by the State.”
Griswold v Connecticut
381 US 479 (1965)
The 4th and 5th Amendments were described as protection against all governmental invasions “of the sanctity of a man’s home and the privacies of life.” The Court referred to the 4th Amendment as creating a “right to privacy, no less important than any other right carefully and particularly reserved to the people.” Reaffirming the principles set forth in Pierce v. Society of Sisters and Meyers v Nebraska.
Prince v Massachusetts
321 US 158 (1944)
It is cardinal with us that the custody, care and nurture of the child reside first in the parents, whose primary function and freedom include preparation for obligations the state can neither supply nor hinder. And it is in recognition of this that these decisions have respected the private realm of family life which the state cannot enter.
Skinner v Oklahoma
316 US 535 (1942)
“We are dealing here with legislation which involves one of the basic civil rights of man. Marriage and procreation are fundamental to the very existence and survival of the race.”
Pierce v Society of Sisters
268 US 510 (1925)
The liberty of parents and guardians to direct the upbringing and education of children was abridged by a proposed statute to compell public education. “The fundamental theory of liberty upon which all governments in this Union repose excludes any general power of the state to standardize its children by forcing them to accept instruction from public teachers only. The child is not the mere creature of the state; those who nurture him and direct his destiny have the right, coupled with the high duty, to recognize and prepare him for additional obligations.”
Meyer v Nebraska
262 US 390 (1923)
“No state … shall deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law.”
“While this court has not attempted to define with exactness the liberty thus guaranteed, the term has received much consideration and some of the included things have been definitely stated. Without doubt, it denotes not merely freedom from bodily restraint but also the right of the individual to contract, to engage in any of the common occupations of life, to acquire useful knowledge, to marry, establish a home and bring up children, to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience, and generally to enjoy those privileges long recognized at common law as essential to the orderly pursuit of happiness by free men.”
by Christopher J. Klicka, Esq.
The Supreme Court of the United States has traditionally and continuously upheld the principle that parents have the fundamental right to direct the education and upbringing of their children. A review of cases taking up the issue shows that the Supreme Court has unwaveringly given parental rights the highest respect and protection possible. What follows are some of the examples of the Court’s past protection of parental rights.
In Meyer v. Nebraska,1 the Court invalidated a state law which prohibited foreign language instruction for school children because the law did not “promote” education but rather “arbitrarily and unreasonably” interfered with “the natural duty of the parent to give his children education suitable to their station in life…” 2 The court chastened the legislature for attempting “materially to interfere… with the power of parents to control the education of their own.” 3 This decision clearly affirmed that the Constitution protects the preferences of the parent in education over those of the State. In the same decision, the Supreme Court also recognized that the right of the parents to delegate their authority to a teacher in order to instruct their children was protected within the liberty of the Fourteenth Amendment. 4
The fundamental theory of liberty upon which all governments in this Union repose excluded any general power of the state to standardize its children by forcing them to accept instruction from public teachers only. The child is not the mere creature of the state; those who nurture him and direct his destiny have the right and the high duty, to recognize and prepare him for additional obligations.8 [emphasis supplied]
The Supreme Court uses strong language in asserting that children are not “the mere creature of the State.” The holding in Pierce, therefore, preserves diversity of process of education by forbidding the State to standardize the education of children through forcing them to only accept instruction from public schools.
The parents’ right to instruct their children clearly takes precedence over the state’s regulatory interest unless the public safety is endangered.
Similarly, in Prince v. Massachusetts,12 the Supreme Court admitted the high responsibility and right of parents to control the upbringing of their children against that of the State.
It is cardinal with us that the custody, care, and nurture of the child reside first in the parents, whose primary function and freedom include preparation for obligations the State can neither supply nor hinder.13 [emphasis supplied]
Twenty-one years later, the Supreme Court, in Griswold v. Connecticut, emphasized that the state cannot interfere with the right of a parent to control his child’s education. 14 The Court stated that the right to educate one’s child as one chooses is guaranteed in the Bill of Rights and applicable to the States by the First and Fourteenth Amendments.15
Consequently, it is clear the constitutional right of a parent to direct the upbringing and education of his child is firmly entrenched in the U.S. Supreme Court case history. Furthermore, a higher standard of review applies to fundamental rights such as parental liberty than to other rights. When confronted with a conflict between parents’ rights and state regulation, the court must apply the “compelling interest test.” Under this test, the state must prove that its infringement on the parents’ liberty is essential to fulfill a compelling interest and is the least restrictive means of fulfilling this state interest. Simply proving the regulation is reasonable is not sufficient.
Below are excerpts from over a dozen United States Supreme Court cases where, primarily in dicta, the Court has declared parental rights to be fundamental rights which require a higher standard of review (i.e. the “compelling interest test”).
1. Paris Adult Theater v. Slaton, 413 US 49, 65 (1973)
In this case, the Court includes the right of parents to rear children among rights “deemed fundamental.”
2. Carey v. Population Services International, 431 US 678, 684-686 (1977)
Once again, the Court includes the right of parents in the area of “child rearing and education” to be a liberty interest protected by the Fourteenth Amendment, requiring an application of the “compelling interest test.”
Although the Constitution does not explicitly mention any right of privacy, the Court has recognized that one aspect of the liberty protected by the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment is a “right of personal privacy or a guarantee of certain areas or zones of privacy . . . This right of personal privacy includes the interest and independence in making certain kinds of important decisions . . . While the outer limits of this aspect of privacy have not been marked by the Court, it is clear that among the decisions that an individual may make without unjustified government interference are personal decisions relating to marriage . . . family relationships, Prince v. Massachusetts, 321 US 158 (1944); and child rearing and education, Pierce v. Society of Sisters, 268 US 510 (1925); Meyer v. Nebraska, 262 US 390 (1923).’ [Emphasis supplied]
Charles Frederick Tolbert EdD
For Senator Florida 2016
Citizens for a Better America